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Table of Contents, Volume 1, Issue 1
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Aloe vera edible coating and osmotic dehydration have received considerable attention in recent years because of their numerous advantages and better way to attain the foreign exchange by reduction of post-harvest losses, especially of Mango (cv. Sindhari). This could contribute to the diminution of loss of moisture and texture, managed respiration rate as well as maturation progress, delayed oxidative browning and reduced microbial propagation in fruits. The objective of the the research was to provide a comprehensive effect of pre-treatment of Aloe vera gel and osmotic drying on fruits, and it as found that coated osmotic dehydrated with a higher concentration of Aloe vera (65% sucrose osmotic solution with 10% Aloe vera gel coating) had attained better physicochemical attributes than control.Keywords: Mango, Aloe Vera, Edible Coating, Osmotic Dehydration, Shelf Life, Mango
Plant confronts several abiotic stresses during their growth cycle and tries to manage them with the help of phytohormones, often called growth regulators. Phytohormones are chemical messengers that regulate the normal development of plants and their response to environmental stimuli. They regulate tissue growth and differentiation, determining when plants grow and mature. Plant growth regulators such as Abscisic acid, ethylene, and Jasmonic acid are essentials in the abiotic stress plant response. In addition, plants can detect unfavorable environmental conditions through hormones. Biosynthesis of phytohormones by the plants equips them with a mechanism to adapt themselves according to the prevailing situations. Abscisic acid help the plant to confront drought and salinity stress, whereas ethylene helps the plants in drought, over-watering, cold, and salinity. Jasmonic acid aids plant to recover from mechanical injuries and drought stress. Abiotic stress like water deficit, salinity, and heat triggers production of enzymes depending upon the genetic makeup of the plants, to produce the plant growth regulators that may ultimately help them to show resilience against stress or mitigation.Keywords:Phytohormones, Abiotic stress, Abscisic acid, Jasmonic acid, Ethylene
Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infectious diseases that affect the liver. The clinical features, epidemiological parameters, and modes of transmission of these viruses vary extensively. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause only acute hepatitis while hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis. Epidemiology of HAV, HBV, and HCV will be characterized and discussed in detail in this paper. HAV is majorly transmitted via contaminated food and water. Countries with low socio-economic conditions among population have higher epidemiology of HAV in children. HBV has a universal distribution, and a large number of carriers live around the globe. HCV also has a global epidemiological distribution with highest rates of prevalence in Africa. Blood products and bodily fluids are reported as the major sources of transmission.Keywords:Hepatitis A, B, C, Epidemiology, Prevalence, Transmission, Risk factors
Rheumatoid Arthritis is one of the types of Arthritis in which the joints swell up. It has been found that there are approximately 340 genes involved in causing the Rheumatoid Arthritis. Moreover, it has also been observed that SNPs of these genes are associated with the disease. In this study, four genes were analyzed for their possible association with Rheumatoid Arthritis using bioinformatics tools. The results showed how SNPs are associated with this disease. Some of the SNPs brought some structural changes in particular proteins while others SNPs produced no change in the structure. SNPs that made the proteins abnormal and brought some structural changes in the protein can be considered as SNPs associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis, as by change of normal amino acid, the orientations of proteins can be disturbed and protein are not involved in specific pathways thus being pathogenic. In some cases, the structural change leads to disruption of the protein structure while sometimes, the structure remains unchanged i.e. due to synonymous mutations. This is due to a reason that sometimes, due to SNPs the abnormal amino acid is coded, which can either disrupt or mutate the whole structure. This fact can be supported by an evidence that the hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids provide specific orientations to proteins and whenever some polar amino acid is replaced by non-polar amino acid or some non-polar amino acid is replaced by polar amino acid or some cyclic amino acid is replaced by non-cyclic amino acid, the abnormality occurs, which can lead to disruption of protein structure making it abnormal. In this study, the changes in protein structure by SNPs are observed and such SNPs are predicted to be involved in causing Rheumatoid Arthritis.Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, SNPs, Mutation, Genes, Proteins, Nucleotides, MIA, CST3,